The Science – References (with abstracts)

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[spoiler title="Fast Fat Loss"]

Nackers, LM, KM Ross, and MG Perri. 2010. The association between rate of initial weight loss and long-term success in obesity treatment: Does slow and steady win the race? Int J Behav Med. 17(3):161–67.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success.

PURPOSE:

This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid initial loss.

METHODS:

Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean = 59.3 years) obese women (mean BMI = 36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed by a 1-year extended care program. Participants were encouraged to reduce caloric intake to achieve weight losses of 0.45 kg/week. Groups were categorized as “FAST” (> or =0.68 kg/week, n = 69), “MODERATE” (> or =0.23 and <0.68 kg/week, n = 104), and “SLOW” (<0.23 kg/week, n = 89) based on rate of weight loss during first month of treatment.

RESULTS:

The FAST, MODERATE, and SLOW groups differed significantly in mean weight changes at 6 months (-13.5, -8.9, and -5.1 kg, respectively, ps < 0.001), and the FAST and SLOW groups differed significantly at 18 months (-10.9, -7.1, and -3.7 kg, respectively, ps < 0.001). No significant group differences were found in weight regain between 6 and 18 months (2.6, 1.8, and 1.3 kg, respectively, ps < 0.9). The FAST and MODERATE groups were 5.1 and 2.7 times more likely to achieve 10% weight losses at 18 months than the SLOW group.

CONCLUSION:

Collectively, findings indicate both short- and long-term advantages to fast initial weight loss. Fast weight losers obtained greater weight reduction and long-term maintenance, and were not more susceptible to weight regain than gradual weight losers.

Sciamanna, CN, et al. 2011. Practices associated with weight loss versus weight-loss maintenance results of a national survey. Am J Prev Med. 41(2):159–66.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Few studies have examined the weight-control practices that promote weight loss and weight-loss maintenance in the same sample.

PURPOSE:

To examine whether the weight control practices associated with weight loss differ from those associated with weight-loss maintenance.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 1165 U.S. adults. The adjusted associations of the use of 36 weight-control practices in the past week with success in weight loss (≥10% lost in the past year) and success in weight-loss maintenance (≥10% lost and maintained for ≥1 year) were examined.

RESULTS:

Of the 36 practices, only 8 (22%) were associated with both weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Overall, there was poor agreement (kappa=0.22) between the practices associated with weight loss and/or weight-loss maintenance. For example, those who reported more often following a consistent exercise routine or eating plenty of low-fat sources of protein were 1.97 (95% CI=1.33, 2.94) and 1.76 (95% CI=1.25, 2.50) times more likely, respectively, to report weight-loss maintenance but not weight loss. Alternatively, those who reported more often doing different kinds of exercises or planning meals ahead of time were 2.56 (95% CI=1.44, 4.55) and 1.68 (95% CI=1.03, 2.74) times more likely, respectively, to report weight loss but not weight-loss maintenance.

CONCLUSIONS:

Successful weight loss and weight-loss maintenance may require two different sets of practices. Designing interventions with this premise may inform the design of more effective weight-loss maintenance interventions.

Hollis, JF, et al. 2000. Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight- loss maintenance trial. Am J Prev Med. 35(2):118–26.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To improve methods for long-term weight management, the Weight Loss Maintenance (WLM) trial, a four-center randomized trial, was conducted to compare alternative strategies for maintaining weight loss over a 30-month period. This paper describes methods and results for the initial 6-month weight-loss program (Phase I).

METHODS:

Eligible adults were aged > or =25, overweight or obese (BMI=25-45 kg/m2), and on medications for hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. Anthropomorphic, demographic, and psychosocial measures were collected at baseline and 6 months. Participants (n=1685) attended 20 weekly group sessions to encourage calorie restriction, moderate-intensity physical activity, and the DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) dietary pattern. Weight-loss predictors with missing data were replaced by multiple imputation.

RESULTS:

Participants were 44% African American and 67% women; 79% were obese (BMI> or =30), 87% were taking anti-hypertensive medications, and 38% were taking antidyslipidemia medications. Participants attended an average of 72% of 20 group sessions. They self-reported 117 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week, kept 3.7 daily food records per week, and consumed 2.9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The Phase-I follow-up rate was 92%. Mean (SD) weight change was -5.8 kg (4.4), and 69% lost at least 4 kg. All race-gender subgroups lost substantial weight: African-American men (-5.4 kg +/- 7.7); African-American women (-4.1 kg +/- 2.9); non-African-American men (-8.5 kg +/- 12.9); and non-African-American women (-5.8 kg +/- 6.1). Behavioral measures (e.g., diet records and physical activity) accounted for most of the weight-loss variation, although the association between behavioral measures and weight loss differed by race and gender groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

The WLM behavioral intervention successfully achieved clinically significant short-term weight loss in a diverse population of high-risk patients.

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Food Intolerances Overview"]

Metametrix™ Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine. (http://www.metametrix.com/learning-center/books/2008/leifm)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_intolerance
http://www.womentowomen.com/inflammation/allergies.aspx
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/food-allergy/AN01109
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-mark-hyman/food-allergy_b_1301271.html

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Gluten"]

Biesiekierski, JR, et al. 2011. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 106(3):508–15.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Despite increased prescription of a gluten-free diet for gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals who do not have celiac disease, there is minimal evidence that suggests that gluten is a trigger. The aims of this study were to determine whether gluten ingestion can induce symptoms in non-celiac individuals and to examine the mechanism.

METHODS:

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled rechallenge trial was undertaken in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom celiac disease was excluded and who were symptomatically controlled on a gluten-free diet. Participants received either gluten or placebo in the form of two bread slices plus one muffin per day with a gluten-free diet for up to 6 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale and markers of intestinal inflammation, injury, and immune activation were monitored.

RESULTS:

A total of 34 patients (aged 29-59 years, 4 men) completed the study as per protocol. Overall, 56% had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Adherence to diet and supplements was very high. Of 19 patients (68%) in the gluten group, 13 reported that symptoms were not adequately controlled compared with 6 of 15 (40%) on placebo (P=0.0001; generalized estimating equation). On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). Anti-gliadin antibodies were not induced. There were no significant changes in fecal lactoferrin, levels of celiac antibodies, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or intestinal permeability. There were no differences in any end point in individuals with or without DQ2/DQ8.

CONCLUSIONS:

“Non-celiac gluten intolerance” may exist, but no clues to the mechanism were elucidated.

Hadjivassiliou M, et al. Gluten ataxia in perspective: epidemiology, genetic susceptibility and clinical characteristics. Brain. 2003 Mar;126(Pt 3):685-91.

Abstract
We previously have described a group of patients with gluten sensitivity presenting with ataxia (gluten ataxia) and suggested that this disease entity may account for a large number of patients with sporadic idiopathic ataxia. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of gluten sensitivity amongst a large cohort of patients with sporadic and familial ataxia and looked at possible genetic predisposition to gluten sensitivity amongst these groups. Two hundred and twenty-four patients with various causes of ataxia from North Trent (59 familial and/or positive testing for spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7, and Friedreich’s ataxia, 132 sporadic idiopathic and 33 clinically probable cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy MSA-C) and 44 patients with sporadic idiopathic ataxia from The Institute of Neurology, London, were screened for the presence of antigliadin antibodies. A total of 1200 volunteers were screened as normal controls. The prevalence of antigliadin antibodies in the familial group was eight out of 59 (14%), 54 out of 132 (41%) in the sporadic idiopathic group, five out of 33 (15%) in the MSA-C group and 149 out of 1200 (12%) in the normal controls. The prevalence in the sporadic idiopathic group from London was 14 out of 44 (32%). The difference in prevalence between the idiopathic sporadic groups and the other groups was highly significant (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.003, respectively). The clinical characteristics of 68 patients with gluten ataxia were as follows: the mean age at onset of the ataxia was 48 years (range 14-81 years) with a mean duration of the ataxia of 9.7 years (range 1-40 years). Ocular signs were observed in 84% and dysarthria in 66%. Upper limb ataxia was evident in 75%, lower limb ataxia in 90% and gait ataxia in 100% of patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in only 13%. MRI revealed atrophy of the cerebellum in 79% and white matter hyperintensities in 19%. Forty-five percent of patients had neurophysiological evidence of a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy was found in 24%. HLA DQ2 was present in 72% of patients. Gluten ataxia is therefore the single most common cause of sporadic idiopathic ataxia. Antigliadin antibody testing is essential at first presentation of patients with sporadic ataxia.

Biesiekierski JR, et al. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar;106(3):508-14; quiz 515. Epub 2011 Jan 11.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Despite increased prescription of a gluten-free diet for gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals who do not have celiac disease, there is minimal evidence that suggests that gluten is a trigger. The aims of this study were to determine whether gluten ingestion can induce symptoms in non-celiac individuals and to examine the mechanism.

METHODS:

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled rechallenge trial was undertaken in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom celiac disease was excluded and who were symptomatically controlled on a gluten-free diet. Participants received either gluten or placebo in the form of two bread slices plus one muffin per day with a gluten-free diet for up to 6 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale and markers of intestinal inflammation, injury, and immune activation were monitored.

RESULTS:

A total of 34 patients (aged 29-59 years, 4 men) completed the study as per protocol. Overall, 56% had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Adherence to diet and supplements was very high. Of 19 patients (68%) in the gluten group, 13 reported that symptoms were not adequately controlled compared with 6 of 15 (40%) on placebo (P=0.0001; generalized estimating equation). On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). Anti-gliadin antibodies were not induced. There were no significant changes in fecal lactoferrin, levels of celiac antibodies, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or intestinal permeability. There were no differences in any end point in individuals with or without DQ2/DQ8.

CONCLUSIONS:

“Non-celiac gluten intolerance” may exist, but no clues to the mechanism were elucidated.

Catassi C, et al. Natural history of celiac disease autoimmunity in a USA cohort followed since 1974. Ann Med. 2010 Oct;42(7):530-8.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The natural history and the possible changes of celiac disease (CD) prevalence over time are still unclear.

OBJECTIVES:

1) To establish whether loss of tolerance to gluten may occur at any age; 2) to investigate possible changes of CD prevalence over time; and 3) to investigate CD-related co-morbidities.

METHODS:

We analyzed 3,511 subjects with matched samples from 1974 (CLUE I) and 1989 (CLUE II). To avoid a selection bias regarding survival, we also screened 840 CLUE I participants who deceased after the 1974 survey. Outcome measure. CD autoimmunity (positivity to auto-antibodies) over time.

RESULTS:

CD autoimmunity was detected in seven subjects in 1974 (prevalence 1:501) and in an additional nine subjects in 1989 (prevalence 1:219). Two cases of CD autoimmunity were found among the 840 subjects deceased after CLUE I. Compared to controls, untreated CD subjects showed increased incidence of osteoporosis and associated autoimmune disorders, but they did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS:

During a 15-year period CD prevalence increased 2-fold in the CLUE cohort and 5-fold overall in the US since 1974. The CLUE study demonstrated that this increase was due to an increasing number of subjects that lost the immunological tolerance to gluten in their adulthood.

For more information about gluten, see:
Davis, W. (2011). Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. New York: Rodale.

Gislason, S. The Book of Gluten: Cereal Grains and Gluten Related Diseases. Vancouver, BC: Environmed Research.

Osborne, Peter, audio interview, http://www.glutenfreesociety.org/gluten-free-society- blog/gluten-in-grains-central-to-autoimmune-diseases

Dr. Mark Hyman has written extensively about gluten:
http://drhyman.com/blog/tag/gluten/

http://drhyman.com/blog/conditions/gluten-what-you-dont-know-might-kill-you/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-mark-hyman/wheat-gluten_b_1274872.html
[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Soy"]

Hogervorst,E,etal.2008. High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and women. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 26(1):50–57.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Cell culture studies suggest that phytoestrogens, abundant in soy products such as tempe and tofu, could protect against cognitive decline. Paradoxically, the Honolulu Asia Aging Study reported an increased risk for cognitive impairment and other dementia markers with high tofu (soybean curd) intake.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2 rural sites (Borobudur and Sumedang) and 1 urban site (Jakarta) among mainly Javanese and Sundanese elderly (n = 719, 52-98 years of age). Memory was measured using a word learning test sensitive to dementia and soy consumption was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaire items.

RESULTS:

High tofu consumption was associated with worse memory (beta = -0.18, p < 0.01, 95% CI = -0.34 to -0.06), while high tempe consumption (a fermented whole soybean product) was independently related to better memory (beta = 0.12, p < 0.05, 95% CI = 0.00-0.28), particularly in participants over 68 years of age. Fruit consumption also had an independent positive association. The analyses were controlled for age, sex, education, site and intake of other foods.

CONCLUSION:

The results for tofu consumption as a risk factor for low memory function may tie in with the Honolulu Asia Aging Study data. It is unclear whether these negative associations could be attributed to potential toxins or to its phytoestrogen levels. Estrogen (through which receptors phytoestrogens can exert effects) was found to increase dementia risk in women over 65 years of age. Tempe contains high levels of phytoestrogens, but (due to fermentation) also exhibits high folate levels which may exert protective effects. Future studies should validate these findings and investigate potential mechanisms.
For more information about soy, see:

Daniel, K. (2005). The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America’s Favorite Health Food. MD: New Trends.

White, LR,et al.1996.Association of mid-life consumption of tofu with late life cognitive impairment and dementia: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Paper presented at the fifth International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease, Osaka, Japan.

http://www.utne.com/2007-07-01/Science-Technology/The-Dark-Side-of-Soy.aspx

Dr. Joseph Mercola has written extensively about soy’s problems:
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/09/18/soy-can-damage-your-health.aspx

http://soy.mercola.com/

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Dairy"]

Barr, SI. 2003. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: Is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 133(1):245S–248S.

Abstract
To assess the possible impact of increased intakes of dairy products or calcium on body weight or composition, a MEDLINE search was conducted to identify randomized trials of supplementation with calcium or dairy products. Nine studies of dairy product supplementation were located: In seven, no significant differences in the change in body weight or composition were detected between treatment and control groups. However, two studies conducted in older adults observed significantly greater weight gain in the dairy product groups. The interpretation of these findings is complicated by the inability to accurately determine the extent of dietary compensation for the increment in energy intake provided by the added dairy products. This is not an issue in the interpretation of studies of calcium supplementation, of which 17 were identified. Only one study found greater weight loss in the supplemented group; in the remaining studies, changes in body weight and/or body fat were strikingly similar between groups. In conclusion, the data available from randomized trials of dairy product or calcium supplementation provide little support for an effect in reducing body weight or fat mass. However, the studies reviewed were not specifically designed or powered to address this issue; such studies are required.

Berkey, CS, et al. 2005. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: A longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 159(6):543–50.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Milk is promoted as a healthy beverage for children, but some researchers believe that estrone and whey protein in dairy products may cause weight gain. Others claim that dairy calcium promotes weight loss.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the associations between milk, calcium from foods and beverages, dairy fat, and weight change over time.Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measure We followed a cohort of 12 829 US children, aged 9 to 14 years in 1996, who returned questionnaires by mail through 1999. Children annually reported their height and weight and completed food frequency questionnaires regarding typical past-year intakes. We estimated associations between annual change in body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and our dietary factors, adjusted for adolescent growth and development, race, physical activity, inactivity, and (in some models) total energy intake.

RESULTS:

Children who drank more than 3 servings a day of milk gained more in BMI than those who drank smaller amounts (boys: beta +/- SE, 0.076 +/- 0.038 [P = .04] more than those who drank 1 to 2 glasses a day; girls: beta +/- SE, 0.093 +/- 0.034 [P = .007] more than those who drank 0 to 0.5 glass a day). For boys, milk intake was associated with small BMI increases during the year (beta +/- SE, 0.019 +/- 0.009 per serving a day; P = .03); results were similar for girls (beta +/- SE, 0.015 +/- 0.007 per serving a day; P = .04). Quantities of 1% milk (boys) and skim milk (girls) were significantly associated with BMI gain, as was total dietary calcium intake. Multivariate analyses of milk, dairy fat, calcium, and total energy intake suggested that energy was the most important predictor of weight gain. Analyses of year-to-year changes in milk, calcium, dairy fat, and total energy intakes provided generally similar conclusions; an increase in energy intake from the prior year predicted BMI gain in boys (P = .003) and girls (P = .03).

CONCLUSIONS:

Children who drank the most milk gained more weight, but the added calories appeared responsible. Contrary to our hypotheses, dietary calcium and skim and 1% milk were associated with weight gain, but dairy fat was not. Drinking large amounts of milk may provide excess energy to some children.

Adebamowo, CA, et al. 2005. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 52(2):207–14.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous studies suggest possible associations between Western diet and acne. We examined data from the Nurses Health Study II to retrospectively evaluate whether intakes of dairy foods during high school were associated with physician-diagnosed severe teenage acne.

METHODS:

We studied 47,355 women who completed questionnaires on high school diet in 1998 and physician-diagnosed severe teenage acne in 1989. We estimated the prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals of acne history across categories of intakes.

RESULTS:

After accounting for age, age at menarche, body mass index, and energy intake, the multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence intervals; P value for test of trend) of acne, comparing extreme categories of intake, were: 1.22 (1.03, 1.44; .002) for total milk; 1.12 (1.00, 1.25; .56) for whole milk; 1.16 (1.01, 1.34; .25) for low-fat milk; and 1.44 (1.21, 1.72; .003) for skim milk. Instant breakfast drink, sherbet, cottage cheese, and cream cheese were also positively associated with acne.

CONCLUSION:

We found a positive association with acne for intake of total milk and skim milk. We hypothesize that the association with milk may be because of the presence of hormones and bioactive molecules in milk.

Feskanich, D, et al. 1997. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. Am J Public Health. 87(6):992–97.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study examined whether higher intakes of milk and other calcium-rich foods during adult years can reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

METHODS:

This was a 12-year prospective study among 77761 women, aged 34 through 59 years in 1980, who had never used calcium supplements. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire in 1980, 1984, and 1986. Fractures of the proximal femur (n = 133) and distal radius (n = 1046) from low or moderate trauma were self-reported on biennial questionnaires.

RESULTS:

We found no evidence that higher intakes of milk or calcium from food sources reduce fracture incidence. Women who drank two or more glasses of milk per day had relative risks of 1.45 for hip fracture (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87, 2.43) and 1.05 for forearm fracture (95% CI = 0.88, 1.25) when compared with women consuming one glass or less per week. Likewise, higher intakes of total dietary calcium or calcium from dairy foods were not associated with decreased risk of hip or forearm fracture.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data do not support the hypothesis that higher consumption of milk or other food sources of calcium by adult women protects against hip or forearm fractures.

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Corn/GMOs"]

de Vendômois JS, et al. A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. Int J Biol Sci. 2009 Dec 10;5(7):706-26.

Abstract
We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world. NK 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide Roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. MON 810 and MON 863 are engineered to synthesize two different Bt toxins used as insecticides. Approximately 60 different biochemical parameters were classified per organ and measured in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. GM maize-fed rats were compared first to their respective isogenic or parental non-GM equivalent control groups. This was followed by comparison to six reference groups, which had consumed various other non-GM maize varieties. We applied nonparametric methods, including multiple pairwise comparisons with a False Discovery Rate approach. Principal Component Analysis allowed the investigation of scattering of different factors (sex, weeks of feeding, diet, dose and group). Our analysis clearly reveals for the 3 GMOs new side effects linked with GM maize consumption, which were sex- and often dose-dependent. Effects were mostly associated with the kidney and liver, the dietary detoxifying organs, although different between the 3 GMOs. Other effects were also noticed in the heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system. We conclude that these data highlight signs of hepatorenal toxicity, possibly due to the new pesticides specific to each GM corn. In addition, unintended direct or indirect metabolic consequences of the genetic modification cannot be excluded.

Séralini GE, et al. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Nov;50(11):4221-31. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.005. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Abstract
The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1ppb in water), were studied 2years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2-3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5-5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3-2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.

For more info about GMOs, see Dr. Joseph Mercola’s information:
http://gmo.mercola.com/

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="Fructose"]

Tittelbach, TJ, et al. 2000. Post-exercise substrate utilization after a high glucose vs. high fructose meal during negative energy balance in the obese. Obes Res. 8(7):496–505.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effects of negative energy balance on the metabolic response of a meal containing either glucose or fructose as the primary source of carbohydrate after exercise in obese individuals in energy balance, or negative energy balance.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

Fourteen adults with mean body mass index (BMI) 30.3 +/- 1 kg/m2, age 26 +/- 2 years, and weight 93.5 +/- 5.4 kg, adhered to an energy-balanced (EB) or a negative energy-balanced (NEB) diet for 6 days. On Day 7, subjects exercised at 70% VO2peak for 40 minutes then consumed either high glucose (50 g of glucose, HG) or high fructose (50 g of fructose, HF) liquid meal. Substrate utilization was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 hours. Blood samples were collected before exercise and 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after consuming the meal.

RESULTS:

The HG produced 15.9% greater glycemic (p < 0.05) and 30.9% larger insulinemic (p < 0.05) responses than the HF under both EB and NEB conditions. After the NEB diet, carbohydrate and fat oxidation did not differ for HG and HF. In contrast, carbohydrate oxidation increased 31%, and fat oxidation decreased 39% with HF compared with HG after the EB diet. Thus, HF and HG consumed after exercise produced marked differences in macronutrient oxidation when obese subjects followed an EB diet, but no difference when adhering to a NEB diet.

DISCUSSION:

The data suggest that the use of fructose in supplements/meals may provide no additional benefit in terms of substrate utilization during a weight loss program involving diet and exercise.

Bocarsly, ME, et al. 2010. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 97(1):101–6.

Abstract
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

[/spoiler] [spoiler title="The Virgin Diet Shake"]

Blom, WA, et al. 2006. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response. Am J Clin Nutr. 83(2):211–20.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans.

OBJECTIVE:

This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes.

DESIGN:

Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2 isocaloric breakfasts that differed in their protein and carbohydrate content (58.1% of energy from protein and 14.1% of energy from carbohydrate compared with 19.3% of energy from protein and 47.3% of energy from carbohydrate). The gastric emptying rate was indirectly assessed with the acetaminophen absorption test.

RESULTS:

The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin secretion more than did the HC breakfast (P < 0.01). Ghrelin concentrations were correlated with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (r = -0.65; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.29) and glucagon concentrations (r = -0.47; 95% CI: -0.75, -0.03). Compared with the HC breakfast, the HP breakfast increased glucagon (P < 0.0001) and cholecystokinin (P < 0.01), tended to increase glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P = 0.07) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (P = 0.10), and decreased the gastric emptying rate (P < 0.0001). Appetite ratings were not significantly different between the 2 treatments, and the HP breakfast did not significantly affect ad libitum energy intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin concentrations more strongly over time than did the HC breakfast. High associations between ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon suggest that stimulation of these peptides may mediate the postprandial ghrelin response. The HP breakfast also reduced gastric emptying, probably through increased secretion of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1.

Mierlo, CA, et al. 2003. Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: Meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 27(5):537–49.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although used by millions of overweight and obese consumers, there has not been a systematic assessment on the safety and effectiveness of a meal replacement strategy for weight management. The aim of this study was to review, by use of a meta- and pooling analysis, the existing literature on the safety and effectiveness of a partial meal replacement (PMR) plan using one or two vitamin/mineral fortified meal replacements as well as regular foods for long-term weight management.

DESIGN:

A PMR plan was defined as a program that prescribes a low calorie (>800<or=1600 kcal/day) diet whereby one or two meals are replaced by commercially available, energy-reduced product(s) that are vitamin and mineral fortified, and includes at least one meal of regular foods. Randomized, controlled PMR interventions of at least 3 months duration, with subjects 18 y of age or older and a BMI>or=25 kg/m(2), were evaluated. Studies with self-reported weight and height were excluded. Searches in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Clinical Trials Register from 1960 to January 2001 and from reference lists identified 30 potential studies for analysis. Of these, six met all of the inclusion criteria and used liquid meal replacement products with the associated plan. Overweight and obese subjects were randomized to the PMR plan or a conventional reduced calorie diet (RCD) plan. The prescribed calorie intake was the same for both groups. Authors of the six publications were contacted and asked to supply primary data for analysis. Primary data from the six studies were used for both meta- and pooling analyses.

RESULTS:

Subjects prescribed either the PMR or RCD treatment plans lost significant amounts of weight at both the 3-month and 1-year evaluation time points. All methods of analysis indicated a significantly greater weight loss in subjects receiving the PMR plan compared to the RCD group. Depending on the analysis and follow-up duration, the PMR group lost approximately 7-8% body weight and the RCD group lost approximately 3-7% body weight. A random effects meta-analysis estimate indicated a 2.54 kg (P<0.01) and 2.43 kg (P=0.14) greater weight loss in the PMR group for the 3-month and 1-y periods, respectively. A pooling analysis of completers showed a greater weight loss in the PMR group of 2.54 kg (P<0.01) and 2.63 kg (P<0.01) during the same time period. Risk factors of disease associated with excess weight improved with weight loss in both groups at the two time points. The degree of improvement was also dependent on baseline risk factor levels. The dropout rate for PMR and RCD groups was equivalent at 3 months and significantly less in the PMR group at 1 y. No reported adverse events were attributable to either weight loss regimen.

CONCLUSION:

This first systematic evaluation of randomized controlled trials utilizing PMR plans for weight management suggests that these types of interventions can safely and effectively produce significant sustainable weight loss and improve weight-related risk factors of disease.

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Donnelly, JE, et al. 2004. The role of exercise for weight loss and maintenance. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 18(6):1009–29.

Abstract
Exercise provides a means of increasing energy expenditure and may help adjust energy balance for weight loss and maintenance. At least 30 minutes a day of moderate intensity aerobic exercise per day is recommended for weight loss and maintenance but greater amounts appear to increase the magnitude of weight loss and maintenance. Resistance training has recently been shown to have positive effects on body composition but does not typically show significant decreases in weight. Regardless of weight loss, both aerobic exercise and resistance training have been shown to diminish risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Since exercise is only effective if sustained, behavioural strategies such as self-monitoring, goal setting, social support, etc. are used to help individuals start and maintain exercise programs and show improved results compared to exercise programs without behavioural strategies. The available evidence indicates that exercise is an important component of weight loss and perhaps the best predictor of weight maintenance.

Pritzlaff CJ, et al. 2000. Catecholamine Release, growth hormone secretion, and energy expenditure during exercise in Men. J. Appl. Physiol. 89(3):937–46.

Abstract
We examined the relationship between energy expenditure (in kcal) and epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), and growth hormone (GH) release. Ten men [age, 26 yr; height, 178 cm; weight, 81 kg; O(2) uptake at lactate threshold (LT), 36.3 ml. kg(-1). min(-1); peak O(2) uptake, 49.5 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)] were tested on six randomly ordered occasions [control, 5 exercise: at 25 and 75% of the difference between LT and rest (0.25LT, 0.75LT), at LT, and at 25 and 75% of the difference between LT and peak (1.25LT, 1.75LT) (0900-0930)]. From 0700 to 1300, blood was sampled and assayed for GH, Epi, and NE. Carbohydrate (CHO) expenditure during exercise and fat expenditure during recovery rose proportionately to increasing exercise intensity (P = 0.002). Fat expenditure during exercise and CHO expenditure during recovery were not affected by exercise intensity. The relationship between exercise intensity and CHO expenditure during exercise could not be explained by either Epi (P = 1.00) or NE (P = 0.922), whereas fat expenditure during recovery increased with Epi and GH independently of exercise intensity (P = 0. 028). When Epi and GH were regressed against fat expenditure during recovery, only GH remained statistically significant (P < 0.05). We conclude that a positive relationship exists between exercise intensity and both CHO expenditure during exercise and fat expenditure during recovery and that the increase in fat expenditure during recovery with higher exercise intensities is related to GH release.

Pacheco-Sánchez, M, and KK Grunwald. 1994. Body fat deposition: Effects of dietary fat and two exercise protocols. J Am Coll Nutr. 13(6):601–7.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We evaluated the effects of two levels of dietary fat (0 and 20g beef tallow/100g diet) and two treadmill exercise protocols (low-intensity, high-intensity) on fat deposition in rats.

DESIGN:

Male Wistar rats (n = 50) remained sedentary or were forced to run 840 meters/day, 5 days/week, on a rodent treadmill. Those on the high-intensity protocol covered this distance in less time (38 min) than those on the low-intensity program (60 min). Responses to high-fat (HF) and low-fat (LF) diets were compared within each exercise group for this 8-week study.

RESULTS:

High fat feeding, as a single factor, did not affect energy intake, carcass fat, intramuscular fat, or fat associated with any tissue studied. The HF diet also did not affect responses to either exercise protocol. The high-intensity-exercised animals had less carcass fat (LF: 21% less; HF: 33% less), smaller omental fat pads (LF: 20% less; HF: 37% less), and retroperitoneal fat pads (LF: 19% less; HF: 38% less), and lower serum triglyceride levels (LF: 26% less; HF: 41% less) than sedentary rats. Those differences were less marked for the low-intensity-exercise rat. Neither mode of exercise or diet affected lipid concentrations in hindlimb muscles, livers, hearts, or kidneys.

CONCLUSION:

Exercised animals generally had less fat deposition than sedentary rats but this was more pronounced for high-intensity than low-intensity-exercised rats, and was not affected by feeding a 20% beef tallow diet.

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